NLRB Finds Class Action Litigation Protected Activity Under NLRA
The National Labor Relation Board’s (NLRB) recent ruling in D.R. Horton Inc. answered an important question presented by the U.S. Supreme Court’s ruling last Spring in AT&T Mobility LLC v. Concepcion: does federal policy favoring arbitration apply equally in the consumer and employment contexts?
The NLRB’s response was an emphatic “no,” largely agreeing with arguments advanced by dozens of organizations, including the National Employment Lawyers Association (NELA), dedicated to representing individuals who often cannot safeguard their fundamental labor protections in the workplace without class or collective actions.
Although Concepcion arose in the consumer context, some have construed the Supreme Court’s ruling broadly as stating the Court’s approval of forced arbitration provisions in other contexts, including the employment context. Indeed, the Arbitration Fairness Act, which was first proposed in 2009, was reintroduced in response to the Concepcion ruling and, if passed, will eliminate forced arbitration clauses in consumer, employment and civil rights contexts. As we wrote here last year, Abbey Spanier, LLP supports this legislation.
The particular contractual provision at issue in D.R. Horton required plaintiff and other D.R. Horton Inc. employees to agree, as a condition of employment, that they would not pursue class or collective litigation of claims in any forum, arbitral or judicial. Although the general intent of the Federal Arbitration Act (FAA) manifests a liberal federal policy favoring arbitration agreements, the NLRB found that such a provision runs afoul of the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA).
The NLRA is a 1935 United States federal law that limits the means with which employers may react to workers in the private sector who create labor unions, engage in collective bargaining and take part in strikes and other forms of concerted activity in support of their demands. The NLRA does not apply to workers who are covered by the Railway Labor Act, agricultural employees, domestic employees, supervisors, federal, state or local government workers, independent contractors and some close relatives of individual employers.
In ruling against D.R. Horton Inc., the NLRB concluded that “employees who join together to bring employment-related claims on a class-wide or collective basis in court or before an arbitrator are exercising rights protected by Section 7 of the NLRA,” which provides employees with the right “to engage in… concerted activities for the purpose of collective bargaining or other mutual aid or protection” (29 U.S.C. § 157) and that such “forms of collective efforts to redress workplace wrongs or improve workplace conditions are at the core of what Congress intended to protect by adopting the broad language of Section 7.” Slip Op., p.3.
Likewise, the NLRB found that the prohibition of individual agreements imposed on employees as a means of requiring that they waive their right to engage in protected, concerted activity lies at the core of the prohibitions contained in Section 8, which makes it an unfair labor practice for an employer “to interfere with, restrain, or coerce employees in the exercise” of such right (29 U.S.C. § 158(a)(1)). Slip Op., p.5.
The NLRB decision provides a lengthy discussion of the FAA and the Supreme Court precedent, including Concepcion, which you can read in full here, but explains why D.R. Horton seems to diverge as follows: it “rests not on any conflict between an agreement to arbitrate and the NLRA, but rather solely on the conflict between the compelled waiver of the right to act collectively in any forum in an effort vindicate work-place rights and the NLRA.” Slip Op., p.13.
The NLRB got it right and, in our view, restored some order to a corner of jurisprudence cast into disarray Concepcion. To have reached any other result, as the U.S. Supreme Court has recognized, “could frustrate the policy of the [NLRA] to protect the right of workers to act together to better their working conditions.” Eastex, Inc. v. NLRB, 437 U.S. 556, 567 (1978).
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